Deaf cultures and Sign Languages of the world: China, People's Republic of (中国)

Created 10 April 2000, links updated monthly with the help of LinkAlarm.

Chinese flag David Bar-TzurChinese flag

map of China

Flag: World flag database.
Map: - "search" for country, then "Digital Map Graphics"). OR
Map: Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection.

For a quick, interesting resource for facts about this and other countries,
try Mystic Planet - The New Age directory of Planet Earth.

Note: A flag next to a link shows what language the website is in. If it is followed by this icon: (video camera: This links to a video), it is a video in that spoken language. A flag followed by Sign Language iconmeans it is in the sign language of that country. globe (international icon)Sign Language iconmeans there is International Gesture.

Artistic interpreting: Music, poetry, literature, and theater Blogs, vlogs, and forums Books on deafness 中国手语 (Chinese Sign Language) 中国手语 (Chinese Sign Language) dictionaries
CDs and videotapes Cochlear implants Deaf advocacy and politics Deaf and social services Deafblind
Deaf culture Deaf education and youth Deaf events Deaf film Deaf health
Deaf history and current events Deaf performing arts Deaf sports & recreation Machine interpretation or transcription Organizations
Religion & Deafness

Artistic interpreting: Music, poetry, literature, and theater

647658990. (2007). 和你一樣 (JUST) LIKE YOU (SIGN LANGUAGE VERSION).Chinese flagSign Language icon歌曲:《和你一樣》. 作曲:玉米. 作詞:玉米. 主唱:李宇春. 說明: 見証與(李宇春)一起走過的日子. 這是一首原創歌曲,是上海玉米送給李宇春的一份禮物.

benjaminzhong. (2007, July 15). 手语表演感恩的心.Chinese flagSign Language iconBenjamin表演于2007年7月15日.

dreamingbench. (2008, May 9). 手语歌会表演——《童话》.Chinese flagSign Language icon

Hui, S. Silence is Golden.Chinese flagSign Language icon

shua2005. (2008, May 6). 心燈 手語示範1.Chinese flagSign Language icon黃思婷 問情.

yes14142. (2006, May 10). 好久不見五燈之星-怡筠手語表演.Chinese flagSign Language icon表演

YouTube - kwkikikong's Channel.Chinese flagSign Language iconSign Language icon

Blogs, vlogs, and forums

聋人在线 - 听障论坛 听障群体共同的精神家园.

靜聲手語協會(試用版) Silent Group (BETA) - Silent Group - Yahoo! BLOG.

Books on deafness

Callaway, A. (2000, March 23). Deaf Children in China. Gallaudet University Press. ISBN-10: 1563680858, ISBN-13: 978-1563680854. 1. Introduction. 2. The Chinese family and the deaf child. 3. Deafness in China. The role of professional and parents in the education of deaf children. Urban families with deaf children. Letters to Zhou Hong. 7. Conclusions. Excerpt from Chapter Six: Letters to Zhou Hong.


CDs and videotapes

中国聋人百科网 手语学习 手语视频 手语软件 中国手语.

中国手语 (Chinese Sign Language)

Ethnologue. Chinese Sign Language: A language of China.

Communicating in silence: A study of Sign Language varieties in Hong Kong.

ichirokes. (2006, December 11). Hong Kong/Macau Sign Language.Chinese flagSign Language icon

Institut für Deutsche Gebärdensprache. Chinese Sign Language.

International bibliography of sign language

golden marble bulletChinese Sign Language.

golden marble bulletHong Kong Sign Language.

LifePrint. Chinese Sign Language.

MacauSignLanguage. (2008, May 2). Macau Deaf.Chinese flagSign Language icon

Wikipedia. Chinese Sign Language.

Wilkinson, J. & Marthinussen, J. (1997). Chinese Sign Language.

Yang J.H.; Fischer S.D. Expressing negation in Chinese Sign Language. CSL displays some unique features. One is a negative handshape, phonetically equivalent to the fingerspelled letter i in ASL. It also seems that a horizontal handwave and a side-to-side headshake have equivalent negative force, but the two cannot be used simultaneously. The structures of negative words and sentences show that CSL has a unique grammatical system that forces us to rethink some of our assumptions about sign language negation.

YouTube - ChineseSignLanguage's Videos.Chinese flagSign Language icon

YouTube - huxiaoshu's Videos.Chinese flagSign Language icon

YouTube - kwkikikong's Channel.Chinese flagSign Language icon

手語四重奏 港澳聾人大不同 - PeoPo 公民新聞.


中国聋人百科网 手语学习 手语视频 手语软件 中国手语.

我爱手语网 ——中国手语资料最全的网站.


手语图库 - 聋人在线.


中国手语 (Chinese Sign Language) dictionaries

Bar-Tzur, D. Indigenous signs for cities: China.

Fingeralphabet China (Chinese fingerspelling).

Fingeralphabet Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapur, Taiwan (Fingerspelling in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapor, and Taiwan).

ichirokes. (2006, December 11). Hong Kong/Macau Sign Language.Chinese flagSign Language icon

International bibliography of sign language - Chinese Sign Language dictionary.

maxiewawa. (2007, November 5). Chinese Sign Language.Chinese flagSign Language icon

SignPuddle. Dictionary China.

澳門聾人協會 -- 手語推廣.Chinese flag,Chinese flagSign Language icon

線上手語實際教學影片(粵語版).Chinese flagSign Language iconIf you put your cursor on each item in the list on the left, so that you can see the name of the file, the extension generally shows the name in English. For example, "男 " at the top left is named "".


中国特殊教育网_听障. 中国手语.Chinese flagSign Language icon

中华残疾人服务网--中国手语.Chinese flagSign Language icon

手語推廣. 鳴謝:澳門電訊有限公司協助拍攝本版網頁內容。 手語示範:劉玉英女仕

Cochlear implants

Wei W, Wong R, Hui Y, et al. (2000). Chinese tonal language rehabilitation following cochlear implantation in children. Cantonese language rehabilitation in 28 prelingually deaf children who underwent cochlear implantation was evaluated. All patients were implanted with multichannel devices and the operations went smoothly. They all had improved scores on audiological assessments and speech perception tests. The speech evaluation tests included the recognition of sounds, vowels, consonants and tone. Sentence recognition and story comprehension were both improved after training for 2 years. Cochlear implantation is a useful measure for the speech rehabilitation of prelingually profound deaf children when hearing aids are of no benefit. The multichannel implant device is of clinical significance in the rehabilitation of those patients using tonal language.

Deaf advocacy and politics IV. Protection of disabled children.

stained glass ballBeijing Declaration on the Rights of People with Disabilities in the New Century. Adopted on 12 March 2000.

Deaf and social services

Government implementation of the standard rules as seen by member organizations of World Federation of the Deaf - Macau Deaf Association, Macau.


Deaf culture Deaf Community - China.

Chan LM, Lui B. Self-concept among hearing Chinese children of deaf parents.

Discovering Deaf worlds - China.

Hong Kong Deaf community.

Witteborg, E.United States flagSign Language icon

golden marble bullet(2006, October 16). Best interpreter in the WORLD. I met the best interpreter in the world in Shanghai last sunday!!!! MUST SEE to believe!
golden marble bullet(2006, October 11). Deaf Adventists in Shanghai.Chinese flagSign Language icon
golden marble bullet(2006, October 01). ASL VLOG part 2.

World Around You. (January-February 1998). Coming home: The Return of the Prof.

World Deaf directory - Hong Kong.

YouTube - qiuqiangmiao's Channel.Chinese flagSign Language icon


聋康网 - 聋儿 聋人 专业资讯 互动交流 - 打造听力语言健康门户.


Deaf education and youth

Callaway, A. (2000). Deaf children in China. To learn how Chinese parents raise their deaf children, Alison Callaway conducted extensive research in the city of Nanjing in 1994. There, she interviewed the parents of 26 deaf children while also carefully analyzing a large collection of letters written by other parents to the supervisor of the nursery school that was the center of her research. She also made fact-finding visits to several other schools and programs for deaf preschoolers, and had discussions with teachers, administrators, and staff members.


golden marble bullet(2003, January 31). A Entrevista do EENET. Lixia Qian é directora do Instituto de Ciências Educacionais de Beijing Xicheng, na China. Durante a sua recente visita ao Reino Unido tivemos oportunidade de conhecer melhor os acontecimentos que estão a ter lugar na China. Nesta entrevista ela explica porque é que a investigação é tão importante para o desenvolvimento do sistema educativo Chinês.

golden marble bulletEENET. (2003, January 31). The EENET Interview. Lixia Qian is the Director of the Beijing Xicheng Institute of Educational Sciences in China. During her recent visit to the UK we took the opportunity to find out more about what’s happening in China. In this interview she explains why research is so important for the development of China’s education system.

Li X. (2005, March 4) Deaf students at Zhongzhou University will be able to communicate face-to-face with foreign Deaf people.Chinese flag

Partners in education: The Department of Education at Gallaudet University and the People's Republic of China.


golden marble bulletHaifang L. & Jing L. (2005, March 4). Deaf students will use webcam phone to connect to the world. This is a downloadable PDF file.
golden marble bulletLi X. (2005, March 4) Deaf students at Zhongzhou University will be able to communicate face-to-face with foreign Deaf people. This is a downloadable PDF file.
golden marble bulletXiaomei D. (2005, March 4). PEN-International Project makes pitch to Zhongzhou Univeristy. This is a downloadable PDF file.
golden marble bulletTan Y. & Zhang L. (2005, March 4). Zhongzhou University signs up and joins PEN-International or similar site. This is a downloadable PDF file.
golden marble bulletYihui W. & Xiaoli L. (2005, March 4). World with love and warmth. This is a downloadable PDF file.
golden marble bulletXiaoPing S. (2005, January 6). A brilliant new century for the Deaf. This is a downloadable PDF file.
golden marble bulletBao G. (2004). Moisten all things softly without sound: A distinguished special higher education for the deaf. This is a downloadable PDF file.
golden marble bullet(2004, 4/15). In Chinese. This is a downloadable PDF file.
golden marble bulletRIT News & Events (2003, September 25). NTID's DeCaro to be honored by Tiajin premier. This is a downloadable PDF file.
golden marble bulletLi Y. (2002, Nov 17). China Educational Resource and Information Weekly Report. This is a downloadable PDF file.
golden marble bulletInternational exchange and cooperation. Photo and text. This is a downloadable PDF file.
golden marble bulletTechnical College for the Deaf at Tianjin University of Technology. This is a downloadable PDF file.

Potts, P. (2000, July 20). E Educação Para Todos Na China - Uma Perspectiva Ocidentalç. "A inclusão é um sinal da nossa prosperidade, civilização e perspectiva científica da investigação". As campanhas internacionais do início dos nos 80 alertaram as consciências para os direitos das crianças e das pessoas com deficiência. Tiveram lugar na ocasião em que abriam as portas entre a China e o Ocidente. A tarefa da reconstrução da educação após a Revolução Cultural de 1966-76, foi assim iniciada no contexto dum debate e de uma consciência políticas mais vastos. Ao longo dos últimos 12 anos tenho observado algumas das formas como os educadores Chineses tem respondido a estes desafios.

Qu C, Sun X, Zheng R. Intelligence study on 1758 deaf children in China.

Tan Y. & Zhang L. (2004, May 3). Zhongzhou University signs up and joins PEN-International.Chinese flag

The TUT Technical College for the Deaf.

YouTube - huxiaoshu's Channel.Chinese flagSign Language icon (plus many other sign languages!)

中国特殊教育网 - 现代特殊教育 - 2004 - 澳门的聋童教育与聋人服务.


特教动态 - 聋人在线.

Deaf events

Macao Deaf Association - Events.Chinese flag

Deaf film

stained glass bulletPiao liang ma ma. Chinese screen goddess Gong Li plays a single mother in contemporary Beijing who struggles to educate and raise her deaf son. This film, which was very popular at the Berlin Film Festival, is a very moving portrayal of the struggle to get by in modern China.

Deaf health

China Children Hearing Aid Foundation.

Liu, W. (18 December 2002). Hero Zhu Yan. A young woman has dedicated her life to helping China's deaf children to hear - and their parents to understand better what they are going through.

People's Daily.

golden marble bullet(5 November 2002). 163,000 deaf kids in China regain hearing ability. A total of 163,000 deaf children have managed to recover their hearing and speaking capacity thanksto a rehabilitation program China launched in 1988.

golden marble bullet(4 March 2002). China strives to help deaf kids recover hearing.

助听康复 - 聋人在线.

Deaf history and current events (2007, February 12). Largest-ever Sign Language Dance Competition Held in Chengdu. The nation's largest ever sign language dance competition kicked off in Chengdu, south-west Sichuan Province, on Saturday morning. With the aim of publicizing and promoting the language, the dancing contest hopes to create a barrier-free working and living environment for the city's 200,000 deaf residents through the activity.


golden marble bullet(2004, July 4). Deaf seek the right to drive in Shanghai. Some deaf people in Shanghai are arguing that they are capable of becoming good drivers and should be allowed to hold a legal driver's license, instead of relying on public transport or buying illicit licenses on the black market. Currently, China prohibits deaf, blind and most disabled people from obtaining driver's licenses, making it one of some 20 countries in the world that turn down deaf drivers.
golden marble bullet(2004, March 29). Deaf girl impresses Miss Universe judges. A 22-year-old deaf girl in Beijing distinguished herself among 50 candidates for the Semi-final Contest for Miss Universe of China and made her way into the final round, Beijing Times reports... She impressed members of the review committee and spectators with her self-confidence, intelligence, and outstanding performance skills during the semi-final round, which was held in Beijing last Wednesday.
golden marble bullet(2003, July 20). Dalian Girl to Compete in Miss Deaf World 2003. The Miss Deaf World 2003 contest to be held in Prague, capital of the Czech Republic, on July 19 will be attended by 25-year-old Dalian native, Zhang Huanying, China's first competitor in the competition.
golden marble bullet(2003, April 21). Miss China selected. Confident, healthy Wu Wei won the title of Miss China Sunday evening and will contend for the title of Miss Universe in Panama in June. Zhang Rui and Xin Xiaojing were the second and third runners up, respectively, at the competition. Jiang Xintian, a deaf-mute girl, was the recipient of the Media Focus prize.
golden marble bullet(2003, March 7). Chinese lab hopes to commercialize sign-language recognition platform. A group of researchers at China's Institute of Computing Technology (ICT) is looking to commercialize a sign-language recognition program that could help more than 20 million hearing-impaired people in China more easily communicate. The program allows written and verbal input of Chinese characters, or other languages, which are then translated into sign language gestures by a virtual person. The hearing-impaired can use the program, along with a set of "digital gloves", to input sign language that is then spoken or converted to text.
golden marble bullet(2003, March 5). Bus workers learn to sign. Bus conductors in Lanzhou, capital of Gansu Province in the northwest, are being trained to use sign language to provide better service for deaf or mute passengers... "We have started with bus routes that carry large numbers of travelers who need to be told precisely where they are so they don't get lost," said Yang Weihai.

(1999). 生命力新聞: 李英 澳門大學首位聽障學生.

stained glass ball无声资讯 - 聋人在线.

stained glass ball人物印象 - 聋人在线.

Deaf performing arts

stained glass ballAPA Interview with Tai Lihua from My Dream.Chinese flagSign Language iconAsia Pacific Arts interviews Tai Lihua, the president and art director of the China Disabled People's Performing Art Troupe. Tai discusses the history and purpose of the group, as well as the documentary "My Dream," produced to chronicle the troupe's performances.

stained glass ballAsia Pacific Arts: Arms Wide Open.

stained glass ballDanwei. (2007, March 1). Yangge Dancing in Shenyang. Best wishes for the Year of the Pig from Danwei TV! This video is a rare glimpse of a folk dance performance by a deaf and hearing impaired troupe from Shenyang. The dance is called 'Yang Ge' and is traditionally performed to bring in the New Year and features characters from Chinese legends like Sun Wukong (the Monkey King) and Xuan Zang.

Macao Deaf Association - Performances.Chinese flag

stained glass ballThousand-hand Bodhisattva camera: This links to a videoGuan Yin is the bodhisattva of compassion as venerated by East Asian Buddhists, usually as a female. She is also known as the Chinese Bodhisattva of Compassion.

無標題文件. Videos: 決賽的精華片段及照片.Chinese flagSign Language icon

無標題文件. Videos: 決賽的精華片段及照片.Chinese flagSign Language icon

Deaf sports

聋康网 - 聋儿 聋人 专业资讯 互动交流 - 打造听力语言健康门户.

Machine interpretation or transcription

stained glass ballA New Method for Motion Retargeting for the Hand Gesture. GE Chun-Bao, CHEN Yi-Qiang, YIN Bao-Cai, GAO Wen, YANG Chang-Shui. Abstract Existed motion retargeting algorithms mostly focused on the motion between the character and the environment and seldom considered the interaction among the segments of a character, especially for the hand gesture. In this paper a new method for motion retargeting for the hand gesture is proposed. Realistic and natural animations with similar meanings to the original can be produced through the way. First many sensitive points are defined on the human body, and key sensitive points and secondary sensitive points are selected through analyzing the importance of the sensitive points. Then a novel method based on the relative position of the original sensitive points is proposed to compute the target sensitive point position. Finally an adapted IK solver is utilized to realize the retargeting problem. Experimental results show that the proposed method dramatically improves the recognition rate of the Chinese sign language synthesis system about 30%.

stained glass ballMa, J; Gao, W; Wu, J; Wang, C. A continuous Chinese sign language recognition system. We describe a system for recognizing both the isolated and continuous Chinese sign language (CSL) using two cybergloves and two 3SAPCE-position trackers as gesture input devices. To get robust gesture features, each joint-angle collected by cybergloves is normalized. The relative position and orientation of the left hand to those of the right hand are proposed as the signer position-independent features. To speed up the recognition process, fast match and frame prediction techniques are proposed.

stained glass ballResearch on machine translation oriented transformation from Chinese into Chinese sign language Xu Lin; Yuan Bao-zong; Gao Wen; Tang Xiao-fang; Xu Yan Signal Processing, 2002 6th International Conference on Volume 2, Issue , 26-30 Aug. 2002 Page(s): 1023 - 1026 vol.2 Digital Object Identifier. Summary: Chinese sign language is a visual language. Chinese is a natural language. Research on translation from natural language into visual language is of practical and academic significance. In this paper Chinese sign language sentence structure is deeply analyzed. From the point of view of machine translation, the basic sentence patterns are classified into eight types. And transformation rules from Chinese into Chinese sign language are presented.

stained glass ballWang, C; Chen, X; Gao, W. Expanding training set for Chinese Sign Language recognition. In Sign Language recognition, one of the problems is to collect enough training data. Almost all of the statistical methods used in Sign Language Recognition suffer from this problem. Inspired by the crossover of genetic algorithms, this paper presents a method to expand Chinese Sign Language (CSL) database through re-sampling from existing sign samples.

stained glass ballYiqiang C., Wen G., Gaolin F., Changshui Y., Zhaoqi W. CSLDS: Chinese Sign Language Dialog System.

stained glass ball手语合成中的多模式行为协同韵律模型 Multi-Model Behavior Synchronizing Prosody Model in Sign Language Synthesis. 计算机学报 >>2006年05期 陈益强 , 高文 , 刘军发 , 杨长水 , CHEN Yi-Qiang , GAO Wen , LIU Jun-Fa , YANG Chang-Shui. 利用大量真实多模式行为数据进行学习训练、获取单模式行为的韵律模型以及多模式行为之间的协同关联模型的方法,来实现虚拟人多模式行为之间的协同.重点给出了多模式行为的韵律模型描述,同时给出基于手语韵律参数与语音韵律特征融合的协同控制韵律模型以及韵律参数获取方法,并运用于多模式行为协同控制中,取得了较好的实验结果.与传统的规则法相比,该学习方法更能刻画多模式之间协同关联的复杂性,更好地实现虚拟人多模式行为合成的逼真性.


Hong Kong Association of the Deaf 香港聾人協進會.national flags,national flags

Hong Kong Society for the Deaf 香港聾人福利促進會.national flags,national flags

Macao Deaf Association.Chinese flag澳門聾人協會為建立聽障人士無障礙的環境,創造聾健共融的社區。歷年定期舉辦【手語班】,近年更與學校及其他機構合作,設計不同的教學內容,以配合不同機構對課程的需要,務求讓更多社會人士認識手語,以及鼓勵市民大眾善用餘暇,充實自己。本期開辦的手語班為基礎班,內容豐富,包括生活用詞、句子、對話 以及與聽障人士運用手語溝通的應有技巧等。課程設有實習課,讓學員間有機會實踐課堂所學。 完成課程而考試合格者,將發給證書。 本期的手語班現正招生,如有興趣報讀的朋友,歡迎致電聾人服務中心查詢。電話28261658

Religion & Deafness

Lutheran School for the Deaf.Chinese flag

stained glass ballThousand-hand Bodhisattva camera: This links to a videoGuan Yin is the bodhisattva of compassion as venerated by East Asian Buddhists, usually as a female. She is also known as the Chinese Bodhisattva of Compassion.

Weekly Chinese Bulletin. Hong Kong Catholic Deaf Community.Chinese flag