Resources for religious/spiritual interpreting (Part I)

David Bar-Tzur

Created 10 April 2000, links updated monthly with the help of LinkAlarm.

Major religious symbols

GENERAL Aboriginal religions Adidam Ananda Marga Yoga Society Ancient Egytian religion
Ancient Greek religion Ancient Roman religion Asatru Association for Research and Enlightenment (Edgar Cayce) Aum Shinrikyo
Aztec Babism (Precursor to Bahá'í) Bahá'í faith Branch Davidians Buddhism
Canaanite (Ugaritic) Caodaism (Dao Cao Dai) Celtic/Druid Chen Tao (The Right Way) Christianity
Confucianism Deaf spirituality Deepak Chopra Discordianism Divine Light Mission; Elan Vital
Druze (Druse or Mowahhhidoon) Eckankar Egypt's ancient religion The Family (a.k.a. Children of God) Father Divine (Universal Peace Mission Movement
Foundation of Human Understanding Freemasonry Gnosticism Goddess worship Gurdjieff
Heaven's Gate The Hermetic Alchemical Order of the QBLH Hinduism Hittite I Am
Ifa Integral Yoga Islam Jainism Jonestown (Peoples Temple)
Judaism Knights Templar Landmark Forum (Erhard Seminars Training, est) Life Spring Maya
Meher Baba Groups Nation of Islam Nation of Y-hweh Native American spirituality New Age Spirituality
New Thought Order of the Solar Temple Ordo Templi Orientis Osho (followers of the Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh) Paganism (Neopaganism)
Pantheism The Process (The Process Church of the Final Judgment) Ramtha's School of Enlightenment Rastafarianism Rebirthing
Roma ("Gypsies") Samaritans Santeria, La orixa, Lucumi, Lukumi, or Macumba Satanism Scientology
Self-Realization Fellowship (Paramahansa Yogananda) Shamanism Shinreikyo Shinto Scientology
Shirdi Sai Baba Sikhism Silva Mind Control; Silva Method Spiritualism Sri Chinmoy
Suma Ching Hai (Quan Yin) Sumerian Synanon Synchronicity Contemporary Meditation Taoism
Tenrikyo The Church of All Worlds Thelema Theosophy UFO Cults
Unification Church (Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity) Unitarian Universalism Universal Life Church Urantia Brotherhood Vodoun
Wicca Yezidism Yoga Zoroastrianism

Note: A flag next to a link shows what language the website is in. If it is followed by this icon: (video camera: This links to a video), it is a video in that spoken language. If it is followed by this icon: Sign Language icon, it is in the sign language of that country. If a globe is followed by this hands icon, there is an animated text in International Gesture.


books with pages turningBooks.

Note: These books usually have a Christian perspective, but many of the unique characteristics of religious/spiritual interpreting will be found therein and can be applied with a wise stretch of the imagination to non-Christian settings as well.

Bearden, C.

golden marble bullet(1975). A Handbook for Religious Interpreters for the Deaf. Atlanta: Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention.

golden marble bullet& J. Potter (1973). Manual of religious signs. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf.

Costello, E. (1986). Religious Signing: The new comprehensive guide for all faiths. New York: Bantam Books.

Contains a brief history of deaf people and the church, executive offices for religious organizations, the manual alphabet, illustrated religious signs, and translations of the Lord's Prayer, the Gloria Patri, the Prayer for Grace, the Giving of Thanks, the Shema, the Blessing Over the Sabbath Candles, the Kiddush, and the Blessing Over Bread.

High, K. (2003, December). Creating sacred space: The role of the interpreter in the religious setting. VIEWS, 21, 1. Excerpt: Ultimately, sacred space is not a place at all but simply an effort throught the shaping of outward space to inspire an inner space where the divine can be encountered. Each religion has their own concept of what that experience of the divine is like but all religions seek that inner sacred space.

Maxwell, M. and S. Boster (1982). Interpreting Hymns for Deaf Worshipers. In Sign Language Studies, 36, 217-226.

Magida, A. (ed.) (1999). How to be a perfect stranger: A guide to etiquette in other people's religious ceremonies. Woodstock, VT: Jewish Lights Publishing. Two volumes. The general format is: History and beliefs, The basic service, Holy days and festivals, Life cycle events, Home celebrations. It describes and advises for the following religions: Volume 1 - Assemblies of God, Baptist, Buddhist, Christian Science, Churches of Christ, Disciples of Christ, Episcopalian, Greek Orthodox, Hindu, Islam, Jehovah's Witness, Jewish, Lutheran, Methodist, Mormon, Presbyterian, Quaker, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist, United Church of Christ. Volume 2 - African American Methodist Church, Bahai'i, Christian and Missionary Allegiance, The Christian Congregation, Church of the Brethern, Church of the Nazarene, Evangelical Free Church of America, International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, International Pentecostal Holiness Church, Mennonite/ Amish, Native American, Orthodox Church, Pentecostal Church of God, Reformed Church in America, Sikh, Unitarian Universalist, Wesleyan.

Rice, C. 1982. Singing in signs. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

_____ (1975). Sing Praise. Nashville: Broadman Press.

image of A CDCDs, DVDs, & videotapes.

Use dogpile or other search engines to find "[name of religion] videotapes".

Bar-Tzur, D. (2004). Technical & specialized vocabulary resource ASL dictionary. Signs of Development. Over 15,000 entries. The dictionary is set up in major categories and further subdivided into categories making navigation as simple as point and click and each entry shows David as the sign model signing the term. Included in the 2,000 entries for religious terms, which are largely Jewish and Christian, there are dozens of entries for Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Jehovah's Witness, Kwanzaa, Native American spirituality, and Wicca. To order.

movie of letter being mailedDiscussion groups

L-Soft. Click on "Search for a mailing list of interest" and search under name of religion desired. Click here to find out how.

organizational meetingOrganizations

Info to Go: National religious organizations for Deaf and Hard of Hearing people.

Use Google or other search engines to find "[name of religion] organizations".

Meeting the people People

(1) Consult with Deaf people of a given denomination/religion,

(2) Deaf "missions" to that denomination/religion,

(3) knowledgeable interpreters, and

(4) spiritual leaders.

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Bar-Tzur, D.

golden marble bulletCultural and linguistic changes in translating songs into ASL.

golden marble bulletHumor and stories for interpreters: Religious interpreting.

Nazareth College. The Center for Interfaith Studies & Dialogue.

Code of ethics and guidelines for interpreters/signers in religious settings.

Earth calendar. A daybook of holidays and celebrations around the world.

Interpreting in religious settings [- a course]. In order to access the course pages, you need to be a registered student or invited guest.

Terminology collection: Religion. A glossary of religious terms.


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Aboriginal studies WWW virtual library


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The Adidam website. This website introduces Avatar Adi Da Samraj and the Way of Adidam. It features excerpts from Avatar Adi Da's Wisdom-Teaching and stories from His devotees. This site also lists information about current Adidam events worldwide, and information on how to contact Adidam in your area.

The Dawn Horse Press.

Global Ashram magazine of Adidam.


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Ananda Marga Gurukula: Progressive education based on Neo-Humanism, Tantra, and Prout.

The Ananda Marga homepage.

Ananda Marga Indonesia.

Ananda Marga Malaysia.

Ananda Marga Manila Sector website.

Ananda Marga Southeast Asia.

Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team (AMURT).

Ananda Marga Wellness Center.

Ananda Marga's Global Online Store.

The Largest Kiirtan Collection on the Planet!

Renaissance Artists and Writers Association (RAWA).

Renaissance Universal (RU).

Women's Welfare Department (WWD).


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Dunn, J. The Gods of Ancient Egypt.

Encyclopedia Mythica: Egyptian mythology.

Goddesses of Ancient Egypt.

Howard, D. The Egyptian culture reflected in worship,

Knight, S. C. Egyptology Page.

House of Netjer. Netjer - the One God of the Ancient Egyptians.

Preston, P. Hor.


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Classical myth: The ancient sources.

Classical mythology: Greece and Rome.

Encyclopedia mythica: Greek mythology.

Greek and Roman myths: Comparing the gods.

Hunt, J. M. Greek mythology.

Greek mythology and pre-history.

Myths & legends. Scroll down to "Greek and Roman", then "Greek".


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Classical myth: The ancient sources.

Classical mythology: Greece and Rome.

Encylopedia mythica: Roman mythology.

The gods and goddesses of Rome.

Greek and Roman myths: Comparing the gods.

Myths & legends. Scroll down to "Greek and Roman", then "Roman".


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Asatru - Ontario Consultants for Religious Tolerance.

The Asatru archive.

Asatru Folk Assembly.

Heathen: Website of the Odinic rite.

Irminsul aettir.

Raven kindred of the Asatru Alliance.


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Offical site of Edgar Cayce's A.R.E.

The Edgar Cayce Books World Database: Home page.


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Aum Shinrikyo (Sect of supreme truth).

CESNUR - Aum Shinri-kyo controversies.

Rick Ross: Aum sect/Shoko Asahara.


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The Aztecs.

The Aztecs/Mexicas.

Aztecs / Nahuatl / Tenochtitlán.

Encyclopedia Mythica: Aztec.

Indigenous Mexican images.

Mysteries of the fifth sun.

The Náhuatl language of the Aztecs.

BABISM (Precursor to Bahá'í)

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Browne, E. G. (1889). Babism.

Encylopedia of the Orient - Babism.

MacEoin, D. (1983). From Babism to Baha'ism: Problems of militancy, quietism, and conflation in the construction of a religion.


A world religion, founded in 1844 CE by Baha'u'llah (Glory of God) in Iran. Its roots are based in Islam. With the exception of its beliefs about homosexuality, it promotes democracy with equal rights to all, irregardless of gender, race, nationality, etc. It has spread across the world. Its followers experience heavy oppression in Iran.2

books on shelfBooks

Books about Bahai.

Magida, A. (ed.) (1999). How to be a perfect stranger: A guide to etiquette in other people's religious ceremonies. Woodstock, VT: Jewish Lights Publishing. Vol. 2, 42-58. [Sections: History and beliefs, The basic service, Holy days and festivals, Life cycle events, Home celebrations.]

movie of letter being mailedMailing lists


UpliftingWords.Com - Links > Resources > E-mail Lists.

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The Bahá'í Faith - Ontario Consultants on religious tolerance.

The Bahá'í world.

Beliefnet - Bahá'í.

MacEoin, D. (1983). From Babism to Baha'ism: Problems of militancy, quietism, and conflation in the construction of a religion.


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Null, G. (July 4, 1995). Holocaust at Waco.

Tabor, J. D. (1996). The Jewish Roman world of Jesus - From Qumran to Waco.

Tabor, J. & Gallagher, E. (n.d.) Why Waco? Cults and the battle for religious freedom in America.


click here.


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Cannaite/Ugaritic Mythology FAQ.


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Caodaism - Ontario Consultants for Religious Tolerance.

Caodaism - Sara Fischer.


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Web sites

British Druid Order.

The Celtic archive.

The Druid archive.

The Druid grove.

Druidism - Ontario Consultants for Religious Tolerance.

Druids and Druidry.

The Circle of the Dragon; Dragon websites.


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Cook, R. J. (1999). Chen Tao in Texas: A new religious movement, its host community, and mass-mediated.

Media alert: "Cosmic suicide" authors gather important information on Chen Tao.

Overview of the Making of "Chen Tao".


click here.


An indigenous system of thought which originated in China about 500 BCE. It is considered by some to be a religion, by others a humanistic philosophy. Founded by Confusious [sic] (551-479 BCE).2

books on shelfBooks

Books about Confucianism.

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Academia Sinica Text Retrieval System:. (Taiwan) World's largest online collection of searchable Chinese texts. Encoded in Big5.

Confucianism - Ontario Consultants on religious tolerance.

Confucius Temple, Changhua. The temple in central Taiwan was built in 1762. So far, it has been renovated eight times. The existing hall, chamber, and gates have a very grand scale.

Dokisha Home Page (At Kyoto University Humanities Institute). A steadily growing collection of essential Buddhist, Confucian and Taoist e-texts, in JIS, Big5 and GB encodements. Presently seems to be the largest site for Japanese-encoded classical texts. An active project, so worthwhile to recheck frequently.

Lao S. Lexicon of Confucianism.: Definitions of terms, bibliographical entries in Chinese.

Wesleyan Neo-Confucian Etext Project. Organized by Dr. Steven Angle. An excellent and continually developing site, which houses Chinese philosophical texts ranging from the earliest classics to the Qing period. Encoded in Big-5.

World religions: Confucianism.


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A Course of Miracles. Here you will find ASL videos in lessons from A Course of Miracles (ACIM) which is about love, forgiveness, peace, and light. It is also a place where we can teach each other and learn from each other by sharing our thoughts/insights on teachings related to ACIM. You are welcome to join us in experiencing spiritual enlightenment and harnessing the healing power of Love. May you realize the Miracle that you are!

Alternative Solutions Center is a Deaf-owned and operated psychotherapy and consulting practice staffed by Deaf licensed professional therapists. We specialize in work with Deaf people and their families. Alternative Solutions Center is committed to: Providing safe, confidential, and nonjudgmental therapeutic services. Creating a culturally sensitive counseling environment for Deaf clients and their families. Ensuring effective communication through American Sign Language and other modalities. Enhancing lives through empowerment and positive change

Beverly Hanyzewski - Deaf Certified Yoga Teacher. Physical & Psychological Benefits of Yoga: Greater relaxation, Reduced stress, Improved breathing, Enhanced flexibity, Increase Energy & Vitality, Better digestion, Improved circulation, Increased strength, Deeper concentration, Sound sleep.

DeafAgape's Videos.

Deaf Holistic Retreat. Inspiring workshops * Gourmet vegan meals * Transformational yoga sessions. Relax under massage (your own expense) * Sweat in the Vapor Cave Adventure through nature hikes (light rain or shine in town and more...)

Deaf Pagan Crossroads. A blog site where Deaf, Hard of Hearing, and Hearing individuals can come together to learn about and discuss various aspects of spirituality, with a special focus on Earth-Based Faiths. While most of Ocean’s posts here talk about the various aspects of Paganism, it is recognized and respected that there are many ways of enlightenment and many paths to the Divine. Thus all are welcomed here, as long as you come in the spirit of love, trust, and respect for others.

Deaf Women United. Our objectives are: provide tools, information and training in areas of organizational management, personal growth and empowerment; set up a home expand and put in place a mentoring system; expand DWU's quarterly newsletter; increase the number of affiliates; increase our membership; provide scholarship to Deaf women internationally.

Heidi Zimmer - Deaf Mountaineer. Heidi Zimmer, a Deaf woman who has Usher syndrome, has a major goal: climbing to the top of the Seven Summits (the highest peak on each continent). As a Deaf female mountaineer, Zimmer serves as a role model and inspiration to many. Zimmer also has several other goals: To become the oldest woman to climb Mt. Everest. To be the first disabled woman climber to complete all Seven Summits. To be the first disabled woman, the first Deaf and Usher Syndrome climber to climb Mt. Everest. To inspire others to pursue their dreams.

Hoosiers Outdoor Club for the Deaf. Club activities and trips to outdoor recreation sites in Indiana are held every month with an occasional out-of-state trip during the summer. While club camping is often the most common activity, the Club has done and will still do other activities that include, but not limited to, the following: backpacking, bicycling, boating, camping, canoeing, caving, hiking, horseback riding, house boating, mountain biking, orienteering, rappelling, rock climbing, snow skiing, skydiving, and whitewater rafting. The Club also do community events such as selling food at its booth on PTCO Day, sponsoring other organizations' annual events and hosting a state bowling tournament.

LaRonda Zupp. Guided by the ear of my heart, this blog is a spiritual and insightful expression of the ongoing journey and celebration of life as a deaf woman, daughter, student, professional, wife, mother, and adult, and of the courageous and continual process of discovering my new wings.

May Wille - Deaf Massage Therapist. My twenty-year career as a massage therapist started in South Africa where I was born. The training was given to me by my friends. It was in the United States that I received further training in professional massage from private tutors in Washington, DC and in several schools in Georgetown in Washington, DC, Berkeley Springs in West Virginia, San Francisco in California and Baltimore in Maryland. My further studies on healing techniques are still on the go. Up to date, I have taken a 4-month course on CPEH [Certified Professional Energy Healer].

oshginva.(2007, May 18). Firewalking (American Sign Language ASL).signing hands

Risa Lewis. Deaf Woman... Deaf Husband... Deaf 3 Children... Deaf Relatives... Deaf Friends... Deaf Community... Deaf World... I know, we live in a hearing world, but still...all above...It's my LIFE!


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Books by Dr. Deepak Chopra.

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Deepak Chopra home page.

The seven spiritual laws of success.


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Principia discordia.

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The Church of the SubGenius.



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Maharaji and Elan Vital related links.

Mahariji's website.


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American Druze Society: Book shop. Available publications and Publications program.

folded newspapersJournals, newspapers and newsletters.


American Druze Society magazine.

Druze Studies. Publications.

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American Druze Society.

American Druze Society - Michigan Chapter.

Druse - Ontario Consultants for Religious Tolerance. Click on "Arabic" or "English".

Druze Research and Publications Institute.

The Institute of Druze Studies.


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Eckankar books.

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Web sites

Eckankar - Ontario Consultants for Religious Tolerance.

The official Eckankar web page.

Other Eckankar web sites by state.


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Ancient Egypt. Gods and goddesses.

Ancient Egyptian culture.

Ancient Egyptian gods.

Gods and mythology of ancient Egypt.


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David Brandt Berg - The man, his mission, and his message.

The Family (Children of God).


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Father and Mother Divine's International Peace Mission Movement.

The Tommy Garcia story.


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Foundation of Human Understanding world wide web site.


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The Grand Lodge of free and accepted Masons.

The official home of National Sojourners, Inc.

A page about Freemasonry.


[A belief system] originated in what is now the Middle East and Greece during pre-Christian times. The movement has been composed of many groups with differing beliefs. One common concept is that there are two Gods: one Supreme Father who is from the "good" spirit world, and one Demiurge (the Jehovah in the Bible) who created the evil material world. Salvation comes through knowledge and liberation from the material, earthly world to attain a higher level of spirituality. Many Gnostic sects were the victims of genocide by the Christian Church. The movement lives on today and is growing in numbers.2

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The Gnosis archive.

Gnosticism - Ontario Consultants for Religious Tolerance.

Mandeans - Encyclopaedia of the Orient.

Manichaeism - Encyclopaedia of the Orient.


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Wellesley Goddess Worship.

Goddess Worship - Ontario Consultants for Religious Tolerance.

Probe ministries.



books on shelfBooks

de Hartmann, T. and de Hartmann, O. (1972).Our life with Mr. Gurdjieff New York: Penguin Arkana.

Gurdjieff, G. I. (1992). All and everything: Beelzebub's tales to his grandson. New York: E. P. Dutton.

Gurdjieff, G. I. (1975). Life is real only then, when "I am." New York, Triangle Editions.

Gurdjieff, G. I. (1963.) "The material question" published as an appendix to his book, Meetings with remarkable men.

Gurdjieff, G. I. (1963). Meetings with remarkable men. New York: E. P. Dutton.

Gurdjieff, G. I. (1973). Views from the real world: Early talks in Moscow, Essentuki, Tiflis, Berlin, London, Paris, New York and Chicago, as recollected by his pupils. New York: E. P. Dutton.

Freedman, J. (1996). Key books on Gurdjieff"s teaching.

Needleman, J. and G. Baker (eds.) (1966). Gurdjieff: Essays and reflections on the man and his teaching. New York: Continuum Press.

Ouspensky, P. D. (1949). In search of the miraculous: Fragments of an unknown teaching. New York.

Ouspensky, P. D. (1974) The psychology of Man's possible evolution. New York: Vintage Press.

Pentland, J. (1997). Exchanges within: Questions from everyday life. Selected from Gurdjieff Group Meetings with John Pentland in California. New York: Continuum Press.

Vaysse, J. Toward awakening. San Francisco: Far West Press. (out of print)

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Baker, G. and Driscoll, W. (n.d.). Gurdjieff in America: An overview.

Carroll, E. T. Skeptic's dictionary: enneagram.

The Gurdjieff teaching.


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The Hermetic Alchemical Order of the QBLH.


click here.


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Hittite home page.

Siren, C. B. Hittite/Hurrian Mythology REF 1.2.



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The Saint Germain Foundation.


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The Satchidananda Ashram - Yogaville home page.


click here.


This is the oldest ascetic religious tradition. It was founded in the sixth century BCE by Mahavira (599-527 BCE). Its 4 million followers are located mainly in India. They believe in karma, in reincarnation, and in avoiding violence. Jainists limit earthly attachments.2

books on shelfBooks

Books about Jainism.

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Beliefnet - Jainism.

The Jain Festivals.

Jainism - Ontario Consultants on religious tolerance.

Jainism: Principles, tradition, and practices.

Jainism resources.


Outline of Jain History.

Young Jains of America Webpage.


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click here.


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The Grand Priory of Knights Templar in England and Wales.

The Knights Templar.

Wikipedia. Knights Templars.

Templar history.


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Landmark (formerly est). Extensive links.

Landmark education and the Landmark forum.

Werner Erhard at Working Minds.


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Maya info.


Meher Baba kept silence from 1925 till he dropped the physical form in 1969 and from about 1956 on used His own unique system of sign language to communicate. (meherdas)

folded newspapersJournals, newspapers and newsletters.

Glow International.

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Avatar Meher Baba.

Searchlight gallery.


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Beliefnet - Nation of Islam.

Click here to continue, or click on a specific

religion in the list at the top of the page